10. The Words, Sounds, and Inflections of Early Modern English: Porovnání verzí

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'''2. Discuss the development of the pronouns ''you'' and ''thou'' (both from the formal and the pragmatic point of view).'''
 
  
- "thou" = represents 2nd person ''singular'', whereas "you" represents 2nd person ''plural''
 
- however, these forms began to be used to make social rather than number distinctions
 
- in some European languages, the plural forms are used as markers of politeness, called ''honorifics''
 
  - this use of the 2nd person personal pronouns was probably influenced by French, and it first appeared in the 13th c., and was
 
    established by the 14th c.
 
  - the PL forms were used in addressing superiors in age, rank, and social class; in the upper classes it was also used among
 
    equals, who didn't have a close relationship
 
  - contrary to this, the SG forms were used in addressing inferiors (citizens, servants, children, even wives)
 
  - the lower classes mostly used the SG forms, and moreover, the SG form was also used to address ''God''
 
  - in general, the PL forms indicate deference, respect, and politeness; however, if use inappropriately, it can be perceived as
 
    distancing, threatening, or reprimanding
 
  - the SG forms are used to express affection in intimate situations, or disrespect and contempt in arguments
 
  - there is a possibility to use the SG form inappropriately as well, which could be regarded as patronizing
 
  - the actual usage of ''thou'' and ''you'' in EModE was variable, in many instances in free variation
 
      - ''you'' gradually became the neutral form of address, either because the lower classes wanted to imitate the upper classes,
 
        or because the form ''thou'' was stigmatized by the usage of lower class
 
  - by 1700, the SG forms were only preserved in some regional dialects, conservative formal writing, and religious groups (such
 
    as the Quakers, who reject politeness in favor of a plain style)
 
  - some dialects later attempted to restore the distinction by creating new PL forms (you guys, y'all..), but they hadn't become
 
    standard
 
 
'''Zdroj:''' Laurel J. Brinton, Leslie K. Arnovick. ''The English Language: A Linguistic History.''
 

Verze z 26. 9. 2016, 14:51