2. Variation and change: profile and parameters: Porovnání verzí

(poznámky k sémantické změně)
(Obsah stránky nahrazen textem „*“)
Řádek 1: Řádek 1:
1. '''What are the usual directions of semantic change and why do you think that is the case? '''
''semantic change'' = alteration in the lexical meaning of words and morphemes; it is the most susceptible to change because of the arbitrary connection between the signifier and the signified
* directions of the semantic change usually come in pairs, one of them is usually more frequent
1. ''Generalization''
* widening in scope of a word's meaning - word denotes a greater variety of referrents
* more frequent than specialization
* examples: holiday - originally only religious significance, now a general break from work; business - originally the state of being busy
2. ''Specialization''
* narrowing of the meaning - lower number of referrents
* sometimes occurs together with borrowing: a native word is specialized, the borrowing has a general meaning (lust vs. desire)
* examples: meat - originally "food"
3. ''Pejoration''
* acquisition of a less favourable meaning
* more frequent than amelioration
* examples: "hussy" originally refered to a housewife; names of animals used as derogatory terms
4. ''Amelioration''
* acquisition of a more favourable meaning
* examples: "nice" originally meant "silly, simple", "success" orginally "result"
5. ''Weakening''
* for topics that we find difificult to talk about (bodily functions, sex, death) - linguistic taboo - we use euphemisms
* euphemisms are in continual need of renewal - it may come to be considered too strong after some time
* examples: condition instead of disease (generalization), pass away (figure of speech), STD (acronyms), darn (phonetic distortion),...
6. ''Strengthening''
* hyperbole, common with intensifiers ("terribly sorry", "awfully good")
* they undergo a continual process of weakening - must be replaced by stronger words
7. ''Figurative Shifts''
* transfer of meaning from one referrent to another
* Metaphor: semantic change takes place when a metaphor dies (it is no longer perceived as a metaphor) - eye of a storm, mouth of a river, the days to come
* Synecdoche: part for a whole - pretty faces (beautiful people), a rhyme (a poem)
* Metonymy: contiguity of meaning - the White House (the president etc.)
* Synesthesia: a word referring to one sense is transferred to another/to a non-sensual domain - a quiet colour

Verze z 19. 10. 2016, 13:32