Etymologies: Porovnání verzí

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== Sinister<ref>“sinister” The Oxford English Dictionary. 3 Mar 2015 <>.</ref> ==
ME: synystre, synistre, sinistre; syne-, sinester; syny-, syni-, sinister; senestre, sene-, seni-, senyster
ModE: sinister
stress: siˈnister (17th, 18th ct.), ˈsinister
- from Old French senestre, sinistre or Latin sinister (meaning 'left' or 'left-hand' - the opposite of dexter; the original meaning is present in ModE but mainly archaic/used in Heraldry)
*original meaning: on the left side of the body; lying towards the left hand; situated on the left hand of a shield (Heraldry)
*given with intent to deceive or mislead, esp. so as to create a prejudice against some person; false and dishonest - about information, suggestions, advice, etc. (obsolete - 15th, 16th century)
*prejudicial, adverse, unfavourable, suspicious - about opinions (15th-17th ct.) - e.g. Some evil Suspicion or sinister Thoughts concerning me.
*dishonest, unfair; not straightforward, underhand; dark - about actions, practices (common in 1470-1650)
*corrupt, evil, bad - e.g. He speaks of bad manners and vitious humors and sinister affections, envy, contention, contumacy, incontinency.
*portending or indicating misfortune or disaster; full of dark or gloomy suggestiveness; inauspicious, unfavourable - about omens (originally denoting omens seen on the left hand, which was regarded as the unlucky side)
*unlucky, unfortunate (common in 1580-1670)
*unfavourable, harmful, prejudicial to a person
== '''DEXTEROUS'''<ref></ref> ==
'''Forms: '''dextrous, adj.;''' '''dexterious adj.,
'''Pronunciation: ''' /ˈdɛkstərəs/ /ˈdɛkstrəs/
'''Etymology:  '''< Latin dexter, dextr- right, handy, dexterous, dextra the right hand + -OUS suffix. If an analogous word had been formed in Latin, it would have been dextrōsus; hence dextrous (compare sinistrous) is the more regular form; but dexterous appears to prevail in 19th cent. prose.
* Situated on the right side or right-hand; right, as opposed to left; = DEXTER adj. 1, DEXTRAL adj., --> ''Example: '''''1646  ''' SIR T. BROWNE Pseudodoxia Epidemica IV. v. 190  “The dextrous and sinistrous parts of the body.”
* In a bad sense: ‘Clever’, crafty, cunning. ''Obs. ''
* Handy, convenient, suitable, fitting. ''Obs.''
* Deft or nimble of hand, neat-handed
* Having mental adroitness or skill; skilful or expert in contrivance or management
== Glamour ==
'''Forms''': ''glamer'', ''glamor, glammar, glamour''
'''Pronunciation''': /ˈɡlæmə(r)/
'''Etymology''': originally coming from Scots as a corrupt form of ''grammar''
* magic, enchantment, spell (e.g. in the phrase to cast the glamour over sb)
* a dellusive or alluring charm
* attractiveness; feminine beauty
== Warlock ==
'''Pronunciation''': /ˈwɔːlɒk/
'''Forms''':<ref name=":0">“warlock.” The Oxford English Dictionary. Available on <> 9 March 2015.</ref> OE ''wǽrloga, wérloga'' ME ''warlou, werlau, werlaw, warlock, warelocke''
- the form used in PDE appears first in Scots in the 16th century when the ending ''-ck'' was added to mean “a male equivalent of a ''witch''”<ref name=":1">“warlock.” Harper, D. Online Etymology Dictionary. 2001. Available on <> 9 March 2015.</ref>
'''Present-day meaning''':<ref name=":0" /> “One in league with the Devil and so possessing occult and evil powers; a sorcerer, wizard.”
'''Can be found in'''<ref name=":0" />: 
# ''Judith'' - refers to a wicked person
# ''Cursor Mundi'' - refers to a damned soul in hell, the Devil, Satan, monstrous creature
# ''Morte Arthure'' - refers to a traitor
'''Etymology''':<ref name=":0" /> in OE used as a weak masculine noun ''wǽr-loga'' which meant ''a traitor, an enemy, or the evil''
<u>two lexemes:</u>
# '''''wǽr''''' (derived from OE adjective ''wǽr'' = "true") = strong feminine noun meaning "a covenant, the truth, a vow or a solemn promise'','' faith" (as in Slavonic languages - Czech ''víra'') - from Proto-Germanic *''wera''- (cognates: Old High German ''wara ''"truth," Old Norse ''varar'' "solemn promise, vow"), from PIE *''were-o''- "true, trustworthy"<ref name=":1" />
# '''''loga''''' = a noun usually used as an agent, derived from OE verb'' léogan'' = "to tell a lie" (of a Germanic origin, also connected with Slavonic languages - ''lhát'')
=> original primary sense was thus '''an oath-breaker''' but already in OE period, it was often applied to '''the Devil''', due to the language in scriptures, it became to be used for '''magicians''' and''' savage monsters'''
<u>Other possible meanings</u>:<ref name=":0" />
* '''fetters, a shackle''': OE waru => ware = guard + loc = lock; as a verb: to secure with fetters
* sometimes applied as same as '''charlock''' = field mustard (the plant)
* might have been originally a Norwegian word meaning '''a pile of stones'''
* as a verb: '''to bar oneself against a hostile invasion'''
== Shit ==
'''Pronunciation''': /ʃɪt/
'''Etymology''': OE scitta/ scitte, eME schit- (coming from the PIE "skei-" meaning "to cut, split, divide, separate")
showing up in written works both as a noun and as a verb as far back as the 14th century<ref>"shit" Oxford English Dictionary. 10 March 2015
"shit" ''Online Etymology Dictionary. 10March 2015''
* Excrement from the bowels   
* One of the most favorite swear words in the English language   
* An offensive or despicable person   
* Any of several intoxicating or narcotic drugs, spec. heroin or marijuana.   
* As a verb the act of defecation, as well as "to lie, to tease"   
* Appears in a variety of other expression such as Shit-faced, shit list, up shit creek (in trouble)
== Dungeon ==
- ME: dongeoun, dongoun, dongon, dongen, dungoun… 
- developed from French ‘donjon’ 
- connected with Old French danjon, dangon; late Latin: domnion, domnus (=lord); (-> the Czech word doma) 
Development of the meaning: 
# the great tower or keep of a castle, situated in the innermost court or bailey (archaic spelling preferred)
# a strong close cell; a dark subterranean place of confinement 
# a habitation, mansion (figuratively) 
# a person of profound learning or wisdom (figuratively)
# a room or building used for sado-masochistic sexual activity
OED  †1. A mountain, mount, hill, or hillock. (Applied, as the date becomes later, to lower eminences.); in the southwest, forming part of the name of hills, as Cadon Barrow in Cornwall, Trentishoe Barrow in North Devon, Bull Barrow in Dorset;in the north, usually a long low hill, as Barrow near Derwentwater, Whitbarrow in North Lancashire A mound of earth or stones erected in early times over a grave; a grave-mound, a tumulus; so barrow-wightish adj.
A mound or heap.
Etymology:  Common Germanic:  "Vehicle for carrying a load," c. 1300, barewe,  Probably from an unrecorded Old English *bearwe "basket, barrow," from beran "to bear, to carry" Old English beorg (cf. Old High German berg, Middle Dutch berch, German, Dutch berg, Gothic *bairgs <  Germanic *bergo-z,  Old Norse berg and bjarg (neuter) ‘rock.’  (Cognate with Old Slavonic brĕgŭ “mountain, height”, Old Irish brigh “mountain”, Sanskrit b'rhant, Avestan barezant “high”< Aryan *bhergh “height”)
In English literature, the word went out of use before 1400, but was preserved, in special senses, in the northern dialect bargh, barf, and south-western barrow; the latter has since been taken back into archeological and general use from the ‘barrows’ of Salisbury Plain, etc.
"Vehicle for carrying a load," c. 1300, barewe,  Probably from an unrecorded Old English *bearwe "basket, barrow," from beran "to bear, to carry" Revived by modern archaeology (an ancient grave) 
'''[[Burrow ]]'''
Related: Burrowed; borrowing
OED A hole or excavation made in the ground for a dwelling-place by rabbits, foxes and the like 
†A burrowing; any small tubular excavation, or underground passage 
Fig. A secluded or small hole-like dwelling-place, or place of retreat; a ‘hole’ 
Etymology: Of somewhat obscure origin. The forms are identical with those of the noun borough, of which the word is commonly regarded as a variant; but the sense is not known to have belonged to Old English burh, Old Norse borg, or to the parallel form in any Germanic language. Possibly it may be a special use of borough, stronghold; or else a derivative (unrecorded in Old English and Old Norse) of *burg-  ablaut-stem of Old Germanic *bergan  “to shelter, protect”; cf. bury, buriels  The forms bury, berry may perhaps be connected with bergh “protection, shelter”. Related to † burrow-headed adj. ? given to searching things out, inquisitive, curious ( obs.).   
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[[Kategorie: Anglistika-amerikanistika|*]]
[[Kategorie: Anglistika-amerikanistika|*]]

Verze z 6. 12. 2015, 20:39


Harbour (BE)/Harbor (AmE)[1]

  • ME word has been assumed to be taken from Norse, but the phonology points rather to an OE type (might be taken from Norse).
  • The history shows two lines of phonetic change:
    • her -> her
    • the weakening of the second element to –ber, -bor, -bour
    • The current form “harbour” exhibits both of these changes.
  • Various spellings – it appears in modern-day form (both BE and AmE) in 17th century
  • Meanings:
    • a. Shelter, lodging, entertainment: sojourn, abode – as early as mid-12th century (spelled as herbyrȝe)
    • b. The “house,” mansion, zodiac (Chaucer)
    • c. Retreat of wild animals
    • d. Used figuratively
    • e. Port (late 13th century)
    • f. Airship shed/hangar (1909, 1912)
    • g. A vessel used for mixing ingredients for glass making (19th century)
    • h. A number of compounds


  1. "harbour." OED Online Oxford University Press, March 2015. Web 3 March 2015.